Description Fort St Angelo is the oldest fort in the Harbour area, dating to the Arab occupation of the island in the 9th century AD. The first documented evidence to its existence appears in the 13th century royal mandates during the Angevin domination (1266-1284), where it was referred to as the Castrum Maris. As the only existing fortification in the Harbour it was taken over by the Knights on their coming to Malta in 1530 and established as their main headquarters. The first significant alterations were the excavation of a moat to isolate it from the mainland and the construction of the a narrow bastioned front with a sinluar bastion, and cavalier, the latter designed by the Italian military engineer Antonio Ferramolino. During the Great Siege, Fort St. Angelo served as the keep of the Orders' defensive position, its guns and batteries providing the christian defenders with vital supporting fire. The next major alterations to Fort St Angelo were undertaken in the 1680s when Colonel Don Carlos de Grunenburg, engineer to the Viceroy of Sicily, proposed and financed the rebuilding of the castle to incorporate four tiers of batteries facing the mouth of the harbour, giving the fort its present day appearance. The drawing shows the northern facing side of the fort with its tiers of powerful batteries.
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