Description The Cooper's Workshop from the 19th century in High Falls New York, USA.Traditionally, a cooper is someone who makes wooden staved vessels, bound together with hoops and possessing flat ends or heads. Examples of a cooper's work include but are not limited to casks,barrels, buckets, tubs, butter churns, hogsheads, firkins, tierces, rundlets, puncheons, pipes, tuns, butts, pins and breakers. Traditionally, a 'Hooper' was the man who fitted the metal hoops around the barrels or buckets that the 'Cooper' had made, essentially an assistant to the cooper. The English name Hooper is derived from that profession. With time, many Coopers took on the role of the Hooper themselves.The 'dry' or 'slack' cooper made containers that would be used to ship dry goods such as cereals, nails, tobacco, fruits and vegetables. The 'dry-tight' cooper made casks designed to keep dry goods in and moisture out. Gunpowder and flour casks are examples of a 'dry-tight' cooper's work. The 'white cooper' made straight staved containers like washtubs, buckets and butter churns, that would hold water and other liquids, but did not allow shipping of the liquids. Usually there was no bending of wood involved in white cooperage. The 'wet' or 'tight' cooper made casks for long-term storage and transportation of liquids that could even be under pressure, as with beer. In the 21st century, coopers mostly operate barrel-making machinery and assemble casks for the wine and spirits industry.Composed in Photoshop with layers, filters, and textures both original and by Design Cuts.
Pamela Phelps, Greenfield Park Member Since March 2013 Artist Statement Welcome to Pine Singer Images
Welcome to Pine Singer Images
Pamela is a healer and a mentor. She strives to portray healing, serene, and inspirational visions and scenes, through her artworks created beginning with a photograph and transformed further with effects, layers, textures, and various alterations.
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